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AUDIO INTERVIEW

Glossary

Some of the terms used in the interviews.

ABC – “Abstain,be faithful or use condoms” – a simplistic HIV prevention message which assumesthat everyone has autonomy over when and with whom they have sex, whether ornot to use a condom and that (for "be faithful") both partners areHIV-negative.

Act Up – Anactivist group promoting various issues relating to rights of people with HIV.

Anaemia – Lack of iron in the blood, causing tiredness and sometimes extreme exhaustion. Anaemia during pregnancy and childbirth can be dangerous for the woman.

Antenatal Clinics –Health clinics specifically designed to look after the health of women during pregnancy.

ARVs –Antiretroviral drugs. Drugs used in the treatment of HIV.

AusAID –Australian government overseas aid organisation.

AZT (vs.tri-therapy) –  AZT is one kind ofanti-retroviral drug used for HIV treatment.

Compulsory testing – Many women around the world are now being told in health care settings thatthey can only have access to antenatal services if they have an HIV test. Thisis against WHO guidelines, which make it clear that HIV testing should bevoluntary – and confidential and supported by counselling – at all times.

Drugs procurement list (patents…) – Every Ministry ofHealth has a list of drugs which it recommends for use in its country. Thesedrugs are  then obtained by public healthcentres from a central drug stock, to run their service. If a patent runs outon a drug (ie a number of years after it has first been developed by a drugcompany), it is then possible for other drug companies to produce the same drug(the ‘generic’) at much cheaper cost than the original drug.  This means that a government’s drugs bill canbe reduced by buying the generic versions of the relevant drugs.

FGM– Female genital mutilation.

First line and secondline drugs – Antiretroviral(ARV) drugs for HIV. If ‘first-line’ drugs do not work for an individual thenthey are in need of accessing “second-line” drugs.

GIPA – GreaterInvolvement of People with or affected by HIV/AIDS.

GNP+ – Global Network of People living with HIV andAIDS.

HIV dementia–Advanced HIV, if untreated, can affect the brain, causing dementia.

HIV and AIDS – "HIV" stands for "Human Immunodeficiency Virus". This is the virus which, if untreated, can lead to illness and death. "AIDS" stands for "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome". This is the name given to the range of infections which someone can acquire if their immune system is damaged by the virus known as HIV. No-one dies of AIDS itself, but rather of one of these other conditions, such as TB, pneumonia or other illnesses that people with damaged immune systems can often acquire. It is a good idea nowadays to talk about "HIV and AIDS", rather than "HIV/AIDS" as if it were one word, because if people with HIV have an early enough diagnosis, appropriate and timely treatment and love, care and support from those around them, their life expectancy is greatly increased. People with HIV can live many long, productive years as full members of their communities, without developing AIDS.

ICW – The International Community of Women living withHIV/AIDS.

Mother-to-childtransmission – HIV can be transmitted from a mother to child either atbirth, as the baby travels down the birth canal, or through breastfeeding. Withthe right drugs, care and support, transmission can now be reduced to as littleas 1%. This means that 99% of babies can be born to women with HIV withouthaving the virus themselves.

Paediatric guidelines – Recommendations for drug regimes for children with HIV, or to ensure thatchildren do not contract HIV during pregnancy, birth or afterwards.

Pneumonia – A severe chest infection.

PMTCT –  Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission.In principle, this includes a range of issues, such as voluntary, confidentialante-natal counselling and testing, a drug regime for pregnant women who testpositive and on-going care for women, their children and their families. Withthe right drugs, care and support, and information and advice, up to 99% ofbabies can be born free of HIV. In practice, many government health servicesaround the world provide minimal support, testing has become mandatory andnon-confidential, and care for woman and baby is curtailed at birth, with manynegative consequences for the woman, her baby and her other children.

PNG –  Papua New Guinea.

Polio Vaccine -‘oral Sabin’ – the name of the oral polio vaccine, named after the personwho invented it.

Project Inform – Aproject to promote the ideas that people with HIV/AIDS should be thoroughlyempowered and educated in order to make sound decisions about their healthcare, and be actively consulted in the process of developing therapies for HIVinfection.

Routinetesting/antenatal testing –International policy guidelines now propose that women should be offered an HIVtest as a standard part of their ante-natal care – i.e. during pregnancy – on avoluntary and confidential basis and with pre-and post-test counselling.However, these guidelines are being mis-interpreted in many parts of the world.Women are being forced to test, without any confidentiality and withoutcounselling. They are being told that without a test they can no longer haveantenatal care. If they receive a positive test result they are likely toexperience a lack of medical care. 

Sex workers –people of any gender who provide sexual services in return for cash or othermaterial benefits.

Sexual andreproductive health & rights – These include the right of every womanand girl to have control over when she has sex, with whom she has sex and thepower to negotiate safer sex successfully. It also includes women’s rights tohaving – or not having – children

SRR – Sexual andreproductive rights. These include the right of every woman and girl to havecontrol over when she has sex, with whom she has sex and the power to negotiatesafer sex successfully. It also includes women’s rights to having – or nothaving - children.

STD/STI – Sexually Transmitted Disease or Infection.

Sterilisation – In this case, a surgical operation which permanently stops a woman from having (more) children.

Symptoms of HIV –Thrush, swollen glands, chest infection…

T cells – Alsoknown as CD4 cells. The count which indicates the level to which HIV isaffecting the immune system of someone with HIV. In a normally healthy personthe range is 400-1,200 for men and 500-1,600 for women. In people with HIV, iftheir CD4 count drops below 350 – or 200 (depending on different doctors’assessments), it is recommended that they start on anti-retroviral drugs.

TASO – The AIDS Support Organisation – A large,non-governmental organisation, founded in 1987, which provides information,social support, counselling, medical treatment and other services to peopleliving with HIV, and their families, in Uganda.

TB – Tuberculosis.

WHO – World Health Organization.

WISE – WomenInformation Service and Exchange.

WORLD YWCA – WorldYoung Women’s Christian Organisation.

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